(a) Any drug offender subject to this chapter who posts bail shall submit to random observed drug tests as a condition of pretrial release.
(b) A drug offender shall be required to undergo a screening under any of the following conditions:
(1) The results of a drug test are positive.
(2) The drug offender requests a screening.
(3) The drug offender admits to substance use or abuse within the year preceding the arrest for the present charge.
(4) The present charge involves a violation of the controlled substances or impaired driving statutes.
(5) The drug offender, within the previous five years, has been convicted in any state or federal court involving a violation described in subsection (b)(1), (b)(3), or (b)(4).
(6) The drug offender refuses to undergo a drug test as required by this chapter.
(c) Notwithstanding the requirements of subsection (a), the court shall order a drug offender to undergo a screening if the court has reason to believe the drug offender is a substance abuser or would otherwise benefit from undergoing a screening.
(d) If a drug offender is ordered to undergo a screening and has not done so at the time of his or her release prior to trial or probation, submission to a screening shall be a condition of his or her pretrial release or probation.
(e) Unless otherwise ordered by the court, the drug test results and screening of a drug offender shall be provided as soon as practical after the initial appearance of the drug offender before the drug court team, or other appropriate authority in the case of an inmate.
(f) The screening shall include recommendations concerning the drug offender's need for a needs or risk assessment.
(g) Anyone receiving drug test results, a screening, an assessment, or other personal medical information shall maintain that information in accordance with federal and state confidentiality laws.
(h) A court shall immediately consider ordering a drug offender to participate in drug court if all of the following apply:
(1) A screening reveals that a drug offender is a substance abuser, and the court recommends that the drug offender participate in drug court.
(2) The court has reason to believe that participation in drug court will benefit the drug offender by addressing his or her substance abuse.
(3) The district attorney consents to the participation of the drug offender in the program.
(4) The case of the drug offender is handled pursuant to subsection (b) of Section 12-23A-4.
(i) A drug offender shall not be eligible for admission into a drug court program if any of the following applies:
(1) The drug offender has a pending violent criminal charge against him or her or any felony charge in which a firearm or deadly weapon or dangerous instrument was used.
(2) The drug offender has been convicted of a violent felony offense or any felony in which a firearm or deadly weapon or dangerous instrument was used or adjudicated as a youthful offender or delinquent as a juvenile of a violent felony offense or any felony in which a firearm or deadly weapon or dangerous instrument was used.
(3) The drug offender is required to register as a sex offender or currently charged with a felony sex offense.
(4) The drug offender is charged with distribution, manufacturing, or trafficking of a controlled substance.
(j) Eligible offenses may be further restricted by the rules of a specific local drug court program.
(k) The Commissioner of the Department of Corrections shall develop criteria regarding the evaluation and eligibility of an inmate for early release into a reentry drug court program consistent with the requirements of subsection (i).