As used in this chapter, the following terms are defined as follows:
(1) ACCOUNTING PERIOD. A calendar year unless another 12-month period is selected by a fiduciary. The term includes a portion of a calendar year or other 12-month period that begins when an income interest begins or ends when an income interest ends.
(2) BENEFICIARY. Includes, in the case of a decedent's estate, an heir, legatee, and devisee and, in the case of a trust, an income beneficiary and a remainder beneficiary.
(3) FIDUCIARY. A personal representative or a trustee. The term includes an executor, administrator, successor personal representative, special administrator, and a person performing substantially the same function.
(4) INCOME. Money or property that a fiduciary receives as current return from a principal asset. The term also includes a portion of receipts from a sale, exchange, or liquidation of a principal asset, to the extent provided in Article 4.
(5) INCOME BENEFICIARY. A person to whom net income of a trust is or may be payable.
(6) INCOME INTEREST. The right of an income beneficiary to receive all or part of net income, whether the terms of the trust require it to be distributed or authorize it to be distributed in the trustee's discretion.
(7) INVENTORY VALUE. a. The cost of an asset that is purchased by the fiduciary, or b. the market value of an asset at the time the asset becomes subject to the trust; except that in the case of a testamentary trust, the fiduciary may use any value finally determined for the purposes of an estate or inheritance tax.
(8) MANDATORY INCOME INTEREST. The right of an income beneficiary to receive net income that the terms of the trust require the fiduciary to distribute.
(9) NET INCOME. The total receipts allocated to income during an accounting period minus the disbursements made from income during the period, plus or minus transfers under this chapter to or from income during the period.
(10) PERSON. An individual, corporation, business trust, estate, trust, partnership, limited liability company, association, joint venture, government, governmental subdivision, agency, or instrumentality, public corporation, or any other legal or commercial entity.
(11) PRESUMPTIVE REMAINDER BENEFICIARY. Those persons who would be entitled to the principal of a trust if the income interest were immediately terminated, and if a trust contains a power of appointment, the holder of such power of appointment shall also be a presumptive remainder beneficiary.
(12) PRINCIPAL. Property transferred to or acquired by a fiduciary and held in trust for distribution to a remainder beneficiary when an income interest ends.
(13) REMAINDER BENEFICIARY. A person entitled to receive principal when an income interest ends.
(14) TERMS OF A TRUST. The manifestation of the intent of a settlor or decedent with respect to the trust, expressed in a manner that admits of its proof in a judicial proceeding, whether by written or spoken words or by conduct.
(15) TRUSTEE. An original, additional, or successor trustee, whether or not appointed or confirmed by a court.
(16) UNITRUST AMOUNT. An amount determined annually equal to a percentage (specified by the provisions of the governing instrument, the written notice referenced in Section 19-3A-106(a), the written instrument referenced in Section 19-3A-106(b), or the order of the court referenced in Section 19-3A-106(c), whichever is applicable) of the net fair market value of the trust assets, whether determined annually or averaged over a designated multiple year smoothing period.