As used in this article, the following words and terms shall have meanings as follows:
(1) ALCOHOL. Ethyl alcohol, hydrated oxide of ethyl, or spirits of wine, from whatever source or by whatever process produced.
(2) CHAIN OF CUSTODY. The methodology of tracking specified materials, specimens, or substances for the purpose of maintaining control and accountability from initial collection to final disposition for all of the materials, specimens, or substances and providing for accountability at each stage in handling, testing, and storing materials, specimens, or substances and reporting test results.
(3) CONFIRMATION TEST or CONFIRMED TEST. A second analytical procedure used to identify the presence of a specific drug or metabolite in a specimen. The confirmation test shall be different in scientific principle from that of the initial test procedure. The confirmation method shall be capable of providing requisite specificity, sensitivity, and quantitative accuracy.
(4) DRUG. Amphetamines, cannabinoids, cocaine, phencyclidine (PCP), methadone, methaqualone, opiates, barbituates, benzodiazepines, propoxyphene, or a metabolite of any of the substances.
(5) EMPLOYEE. Any person who works for salary, wages, or other remuneration for an employer.
(6) EMPLOYEE ASSISTANCE PROGRAM. A program designed to assist in the identification and resolution of job performance problems associated with employees impaired by personal concerns. A minimum level of core services shall include consultation and training; professional, confidential, appropriate, and timely problem assessment services; short-term problem resolution; referrals for appropriate diagnosis, treatment, and assistance; follow-up and monitoring; employee education; and quality assurance.
(7) EMPLOYER. A person or entity that is subject to the Alabama Workers' Compensation Law, except that this article shall not apply to individual self-insurers or members of group self-insurance funds.
(8) INITIAL TEST. A sensitive, rapid, and reliable procedure to identify negative and presumptive positive specimens. All initial tests shall use an immunoassay procedure or an equivalent procedure or shall use a more accurate scientifically accepted method approved by the National Institute on Drug Abuse as more accurate technology becomes available in a cost-effective form.
(9) JOB APPLICANT. A person who has applied for a position with an employer and has been offered employment conditioned upon successfully passing a substance abuse test and may have begun work pending the results of the substance abuse test.
(10) NONPRESCRIPTION MEDICATION. A drug or medication authorized pursuant to federal or state law for general distribution and use without a prescription in the treatment of human disease, ailments, or injuries.
(11) PRESCRIPTION MEDICATION. A drug or medication lawfully prescribed by a physician for an individual and taken in accordance with the prescription.
(12) REASONABLE SUSPICION TESTING. Substance abuse testing based on a belief that an employee is using or has used drugs or alcohol in violation of the policy of the employer drawn from specific objective and articulate facts and reasonable inferences drawn from the facts in light of experience. Among other things, the facts and inferences may be based upon, but not limited to, the following:
a. Observable phenomena while at work such as direct observation of substance abuse or of the physical symptoms or manifestations or being impaired due to substance abuse.
b. Abnormal conduct or erratic behavior while at work or a significant deterioration in work performance.
c. A report of substance abuse provided by a reliable and credible source.
d. Evidence that an individual has tampered with any substance abuse test during his or her employment with the current employer.
e. Information that an employee has caused or contributed to an accident while at work.
f. Evidence that an employee has used, possessed, sold, solicited, or transferred drugs while working or while on the premises of the employer or while operating the employer's vehicle, machinery, or equipment.
(13) REHABILITATION PROGRAM. An established program capable of providing expert identification, assessment, and resolution of employee drug or alcohol abuse in a confidential and timely service. The service shall in all cases be provided by persons licensed or appropriately certified as health professionals to provide drug or alcohol rehabilitative services.
(14) SPECIMEN. Tissue, blood, breath, urine, or other product of the human body capable of revealing the presence of drugs or their metabolites or of alcohol.
(15) SUBSTANCE. Drugs or alcohol.
(16) SUBSTANCE ABUSE TEST or TEST. Any chemical, biological, or physical instrumental analysis administered for the purpose of determining the presence or absence of a drug or its metabolites or of alcohol.