The following terms as used in this article shall have the following meanings:
(1) APPRAISAL. The act or process of developing an opinion of value of real property; an opinion of the value of real property; of or pertaining to appraising real property and related functions such as appraisal practice or appraisal services.
(2) APPRAISAL FOUNDATION. The Appraisal Foundation incorporated as an Illinois not-for-profit corporation on November 30, 1987.
(3) APPRAISAL MANAGEMENT COMPANY. An external third party including, but not limited to, a corporation, partnership, sole proprietorship, subsidiary, or limited liability company, authorized either by a creditor of a consumer credit transaction secured by the principal dwelling of a consumer or by an underwriter of or other principal in the secondary mortgage markets, that oversees a network or panel of more than four certified or licensed appraisers in a state or 25 or more nationally in a given year, that perform appraisal management services.
(4) APPRAISAL MANAGEMENT SERVICES. To directly or indirectly perform any of the following functions for a fee on behalf of a lender, financial institution, or any other entity:
a. Recruit, select, and retain appraisers.
b. Contract with licensed and certified appraisers to perform appraisal assignments.
c. Manage the process of having an appraisal performed, including providing administrative duties such as receiving appraisal orders and appraisal reports, submitting completed appraisal reports to creditors and underwriters, collecting fees from creditors and underwriters for services provided, and reimbursing appraisers for services performed.
d. Review and verify the work of appraisers.
(5) APPRAISAL REPORT. Any communication, written or oral, of an appraisal.
(6) APPRAISAL REVIEW. The act of developing and communicating an opinion about the quality of the work of another appraiser that was performed as part of an appraisal assignment, except that an examination of an appraisal for grammatical, typographical, or other similar errors that do not make a substantive valuation change is not an appraisal review.
(7) APPRAISAL SUBCOMMITTEE. The appraisal subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council.
(8) APPRAISER. A person who holds a license or certification to complete a real estate appraisal in the state where real property that is the subject of the appraisal is located.
(9) APPRAISER INDEPENDENCE. The ability of an appraiser to provide an appraisal or appraisal review services in exchange for a customary and reasonable fee without coercion, extortion, collusion, inducement, intimidation, bribery, or any other action by a regulated party intended to influence the opinion rendered by an appraiser.
(10) APPRAISER PANEL. A network of licensed or certified appraisers who are independent contractors of an appraisal management company.
(11) BOARD. The State of Alabama Real Estate Appraisers Board established pursuant to this article.
(12) CERTIFIED APPRAISAL or CERTIFIED APPRAISAL REPORT. An appraisal or appraisal report given or signed and certified as such by a licensed real property appraiser other than a trainee or registered real property appraiser. When identifying an appraisal or appraisal report as certified, the real property appraiser shall indicate which type of license is held. A certified appraisal or appraisal report represents to the public that it meets the appraisal standards defined in this article.
(13) EVALUATION. A valuation of real property for a lending institution which is permitted by rules of any federal financial institution regulatory agency for transactions that do not require an appraisal.
(14) EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR. The chief administrative employee of the board.
(15) EXPERIENCE POINTS. The allowable credit for appraisal of particular types of properties.
(16) FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS REGULATORY AGENCIES. The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, the Office of Thrift Supervision, and the National Credit Union Administration.
(17) FEDERALLY RELATED TRANSACTION. Any real estate-related financial transaction which:
a. A federal financial institutions regulatory agency or the resolution trust corporation engages in, contracts for, or regulates; and
b. Requires the services of an appraiser.
(18) FINANCIAL INSTITUTION. An insured depository institution as defined in Section 3 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act or an insured credit union as defined in Section 101 of the Federal Credit Union Act.
(19) GEOGRAPHIC COMPETENCY. The familiarity of an appraiser with a market or a geographic area applicable to the problem to be addressed in an appraisal or an appraisal review assignment.
(20) PRINCIPAL CONTACT. An individual employed, appointed, or authorized by an appraisal management company to serve as the principal contact for the board.
(21) REAL ESTATE. An identified parcel or tract of land, including improvements, if any.
(22) REAL ESTATE APPRAISAL SERVICES. The practice of accepting an assignment to develop and report an opinion on the value of real property in conformance with the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice published by the Appraisal Foundation.
(23) REAL ESTATE-RELATED FINANCIAL TRANSACTION. Any transaction involving any of the following:
a. The sale, lease, purchase, investment in, or exchange of real property, including interests in property, or the financing thereof.
b. The refinancing of real property or interests in real property.
c. The use of real property or interests in property as security for a loan or investment, including mortgage-backed securities.
(24) REAL PROPERTY. One or more defined interests, benefits, and rights inherent in the ownership of real estate.
(25) UNIFORM STANDARDS OF PROFESSIONAL APPRAISAL PRACTICE (USPAP). Standards promulgated by the Appraisal Foundation and adopted by rule pursuant to this article.