For the purposes of this article, the following terms shall have the meanings respectively ascribed to them by this section:
(1) MEDICAL PRACTITIONER. Anyone licensed to practice medicine or osteopathy in the State of Alabama, engaged in such practice, including medical professional corporations, associations, and partnerships.
(2) DENTAL PRACTITIONER. Anyone licensed to practice dentistry in the State of Alabama, engaged in such practice, including professional dental corporations, associations, and partnerships.
(3) MEDICAL INSTITUTION. Any licensed hospital, or any physician's or dentist's office or clinic containing facilities for the examination, diagnosis, treatment, or care of human illnesses.
(4) PROFESSIONAL CORPORATION. Any medical or dental professional corporation or any medical or dental professional association.
(5) PHYSICIAN. Any person licensed to practice medicine in Alabama.
(6) DENTIST. Any person licensed to practice dentistry in Alabama.
(7) HOSPITAL. Such institutions as are defined in Section 22-21-21 as hospitals.
(8) OTHER HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS. Any professional corporation or any person employed by physicians, dentists, or hospitals who are directly involved in the delivery of health care services.
(9) MEDICAL LIABILITY. A finding by a judge, jury, or arbitration panel that a physician, dentist, medical institution, or other health care provider did not meet the applicable standard of care, and that such failure was the proximate cause of the injury complained of, resulting in damage to the patient.